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初中英语每日一学(名词重点句型归纳总结)

2018-10-26 15:13 浏览:152作者:admin

英语是一种世界性语言,全世界二分之一的电话是用英语进行的,四分之三的报刊书籍是英文版的。英语的重要性可见一斑。惟楚競才长沙英语培训老师提到:学好英语,就等于打开了世界的一扇窗户,你可以享受到更广泛的资讯。初中阶段,大家会接触到一些简单的英语知识,更重要的是,大家会逐渐掌握学习英语的方法,从而为终身学习打下坚实的基础。英语学习的最高效率就是时间、学习内容、负担量、成本和成绩的函数。具体地说,英语学习的最高效率是指学生所花的学习时间最少、学习内容最多、学习负担最轻、成本最低和学习成绩最高。暑假将至,惟楚競才老师为大家整理初中英语重点语法名词及练习,希望大家认真阅读,并勤学多练,利用暑假时间将自己的英语学科学好。
 
 
 
重点句型:
 
Do you have a basketball?    
 
Yes, I do.  /  No, I don’t.
 
Let’s watch TV.    No, that sounds boring.
 
That sounds great.
 
Do you like hamburgers?     
 
Yes, I do.  /  No, I don’t.
 
I like French fries.   I don’t like tomatoes.
 
 
 
重点语法:名词
 
一.名词的分类:名词分为专有名词和普通名词。专有名词指个人,地方,机构等专有名称. 如:China, Shanghai, Li lei。普通名词又分为个体名词: 某类人或东西中的个体.如fighter, gun, country, 集体名词:若干个体组成的集合体.如 family, team, police, class
 
物质名词:无法分为个体的实物。如 cotton, tea, air,
 
抽象名词: 动作, 状态, 品质, 感情等抽象概念. 如: health, happiness.
 
个体名词和集体名词又叫做可数名词.
 
物质名词和抽象名词又叫做不可数名词.
 
二.名词的数。可数名词都有单数和复数之分。
 
Ⅰ: 规则的可数名词变复数的规则如下:
 
 1.一般情况加s : books, mouths, houses, girls
 
 2.以s,sh,ch, x结尾的es: classes, boxes, matches
 
 3.辅音字母 + y结尾的变y为i,再加es: cities,countries, parties,factories
 
 4.以o结尾的词多数+es  heroes  Negroes  potatoes  tomatoes  zeroes / zeros  以 o 结尾并且词尾有两个元音字母 +s  radios, zoos, bamboos , (pianos ,kilos photos是特殊)
 
 5.以f, fe 结尾的改f,或fe为v,再+es,例如:leaves, lives, wives  knives, halves, wolves The thief’s wife killed three wolves with some leaves and knives in half of her life.但是,也有一些+s,如roofs, proofs, gulfs, beliefs, handkerchiefs / handkerchieves
 
Ⅱ: 不规则的可数名词变复数的规则:
 
 1. man—men, woman—women, tooth—teeth, foot—feet, child—children, mouse—mice,
 
 2.单复数相同: sheep, fish, deer, means, Chinese, Japanese, fish如表示不同种类的鱼时复数是fishes; There are many kinds of fishes in that lake.
 
 3.以man, woman 修饰名词构成合成词时,两个词都变化. man servant—men servants(男仆).      (boy/girl students), woman doctor—women doctors.
 
4.复合名词的复数形式:son-in-law----sons-in-law   (主体名词变化)  film-goer----film-goers, grown-up----grown-ups  (如果没有主体名词,在词尾加复数)
 
5.字母,阿拉伯数字的复数形式一般加“’s ”或“s”.
 
     There are two l’s in the word “ all ”.
 
     It happened in the 1960’s /1960s.
 
     I will not accept your if’s and but’s.
 
6.物质名词一般没有复数,有时用复数形式表示不同种类,
 
      wheats, fruits, vegetables,有时表示更广的词义,
 
     wood—woods,  water—waters,  sand—sands
 
7.定冠词加姓氏的复数表示一家人。 the Turners,
 
 the Smiths,  the Wangs.
 
8.集体名词people, police, cattle 总是作复数,
 
     ( people 作民族,种族时有单复数两种形式)
 
    Many cattle are kept.
 
    Several police were on duty.
 
    The Chinese are a brave and hard-working people.
 
    The English are a funny people.
 
9.集体名词class, public, family, population, team, crew, committee 等单复数都有,但意义不同。
 
    The class is big.---- The class are taking notes in English.
 
    The population in China is larger.---- 80% of the population
 
       in China are peasants.
 
10. hair, fruit 通常作单数,表示总体。
 
    His hair is grey.     a rich harvest of fruit
 
    如果表示若干根头发,表示种类的水果时,可以加复数词尾。
 
    He had a few white hairs.     
 
   What fruits are on sale in this season ?
 
11.以s 结尾的学科名词只作单数。mathematics , physics, politics, 等。(news)
 
12.glasses, trousers, scissors, shoes, spectacles,等常用复数;但如果这些词前用 a pair of …// this pair of…//that pair of…等修饰时谓语动词有pair 来决定。
 
    Where are my glasses ?
 
    My new pair of trousers is too long.
 
    Here are some new pairs of shoes.
 
13.不可数名词没有复数形式,如果表示“一个”的概念,可用单位词。
 
    a piece of news / information / advice / bread / cake / paper / meat / coal…
 
    a bottle of ink,   a grain of rice , a cake of soap…
 
说明:可数名词和不可数名词之间并没有截然的界限;可数名词可以转变为不可数名词,同样不可数名词也可以转变为可数名词,要看清整个上下文的具体内容。
 
 
 
三. 名词的所有格。
 
    Ⅰ.有生命的名词所有格的构成:
 
    A.一般在词尾’s. the teacher’s office, Xiao Li’s sister’s husband’s mother.
 
    B. 以 s 结尾的复数名词只加’   workers’  rest  homes. the masses’ request
 
    C. 不以s结尾的复数名词加’s.     
 
       children’s  toys                  Women’s Day  
 
    D:复合名词只在最后一个词的后面加’s.  my sister-in-law’s  brother.
 
    E:表示共同所有的几个名词,只在最后一个词的后面加’s.
 
      This is Tom, James and Dick’s room.
 
    F:表示各个所有关系的几个名词,在每个名词后分别加’s.
 
      Jenny’s, Jean’s and Mary’s rooms face to the south.
 
    G:名词短语只在最后一个词后加’s.
 
a quarter of an hour’s talk.
 
    Ⅱ. 名词所有格的用法:
 
    1. 名词所有格主要用于表示有生命的名词,表示所属关系。
 
      Lei Feng’s dairy.  the Working People’s Palace of Culture.
 
    2.也可用于表示时间的名词。
 
      today’s paper.  an hour’s drive.  Friday’s work.
 
    3. 也可用于表示地理、国家、城市等名词。
 
      the country’s plan.  the farm’s fruit.  China’s population.
 
    4.也可用于表示由人组成的集体名词。
 
      our Party’s stand(党的立场)
 
    5. 也可用于表示度量、价值的名词。
 
       two dollars’ worth of books.    a pound’s weight.
 
      (现代英语中,这种用法越来越多。)
 
    Ⅲ.凡不能用’s 属格的情况可用 of 属格表示所属关系。
 
       the City of New York.    a map of China.  
 
       特别是下列情况要用of 属格:
 
      ⑴当名词有较长的定语时,
 
       the name of the girl standing at the gate.
 
       Have you read the articles of the students who were with us yesterday.
 
      ⑵所修饰的名词前有数量词时,
 
      a play of Comrade Li’s.    some friends of my brother’s .
 
      ⑶所修饰的名词前有一个指示代词时,
 
        that performance of the teachers’ .
 
     Ⅳ.双重所有格:
 
       当of前面的名词有不定冠词、指示代词、疑问代词、不定代词或数词如 a, an, this, that, these, those, two, three, four, any, some, several, no, few ,another等修饰时,用双重所有格,双重所有格只用于表示人的名词并且都是特指的。
 
 a poem of Lu Xun’s .    a friend of his/hers .  
 
 Which novel of Dicken’s are you reading ?
 
 some friends of my brothers’ .
 
5.几种特殊情况:
 
 the key to the door.    keys to the exercises.
 
 notes to the text      answers to the question
 
 tickets for the film//movie
 
a check for $1500.   anyone else’s book.    
 
the monument to the people’s heroes.
 
the entrance to the station//cinema
 
在现代英语中of属格大都可用’s 所有格代替。
 
 
 
名词语法相关练习:  
 
 1---I feel tired. I have so much work to do and don’t have much time for myself,
 
--you should take ________i think.
 
A  health    B  time    C  lesson    D  erecise
 
2--Ask the naughty boys not to manke any _______.
 
 I can’t fall asleep.
 
A noise     B sound    C voice    D singing
 
3.During Christams people get together and sing Christams songs for ________
 
A thanks    B wishes    C interest    D  fun
 
4.we have _________at seven in the morning.
 
A  breakfast  B  lunch   C supper   D dinner
 
5 –Please give me a____ when you arrive.
 
--OK. I’ll tell everything as soon as I get there.
 
A hand   B present   C ring   D ride
 
6.We  watch evening news on Channel I of ______at 7:00 in the evering .
 
A.MTV   B CAAC   C.CCTV    D. WTO
 
7---Can you tell me when ________is ?
 
---Yes. It’s on the third Sunday in June.
 
A Mother’s Day   B.Father’s Day
 
C. Tree Planthing Day   D .Thanksgiving Day
 
8.Where is Tom ? He’s left a ________ saying that he has something important to do .
 
A excuse  B sentence  C message  D news
 
9 If you want to know the meaning of a word ,you can look it up in a _________.
 
A diary  B diagram  C newspaper  D dictionary
 
10.The waiter or the waitress usually gives us a ______ before we order dishes in a restaurant.
 
A menu  B bill  C list  D form
 
11.Some ________are flying kites near the river
 
A child  B boy  C boys  D childs
 
12.---What would you like to drink,girls?
 
A Two cup of coffee  B Two cups of coffee
 
C Two cups of coffee  D Two cup of coffees
 
13.My school is about twenty _________walk from here
 
A minute  B minutes’  C minute’s  D minutes
 
14.It’s _______bedroom . It’s clean and tidy.
 
A .Lily ang lucy      B .Lily ang Lucy’s
 
C .Lily’s ang Luck    D. Lily ang Luck’s
 
15. They are those _____bags. Please put them on the bus
 
A visitor  B visitors  C visitor’s D visitors’
 
16. A lot of stone tables and chairs are _____of the river and the number of them is growing _______
 
A on both side ,greater B on each sides ,more
 
C on both sides, larger D on each side , more
 
17. I am thirsty. Would you bring me ______, please?
 
A some bread  B some water  C some cakes  D some eggs
 
18.These Germans want to have some ______for supper, so they decide to catch________now.
 
A. fish ,many  B. fishes ,much C fish , much D fishes ,many
 
19. The guide has some new ______.She can show them to us
 
A  rice  B food  C jacket  D pictures
 
20 I’m afraid that there is no ______for you in my car ,because there are already five people
 
A land  B fround  C room  D floor
 
(完整英语语法名词重点句型综合习题精选答案及解析可找答疑老师领取)
 
以上是惟楚競才长沙英语培训老师为大家整理的初中英语每日一学(名词重点句型归纳总结)和练习题,大家一定要理解句型,多做练习题,这样才能牢牢的掌握知识点,如果有不懂的问题可以添加惟楚競才答疑老师微信(280617944),随时为大家解决学习难题。

关键字:长沙英语培训
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