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[全套]初中英语中考复习资料

2018-10-24 14:21 浏览:100作者:admin

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一名词
 
 (一) 知识概要
 
    名词的概念在不同的语法教课书中有不同的解释和分类方法,但就实际应用来讲还是不要过分地追求其理论概念,而更多的要把注意力放在其应用上来。我们不妨把它分为两大类:专有名词与普通名词。顾名思义,专有名词是指:个人、事物、机关等所专有的名称,如,the Great Wall, America…它们是不能随意变动的。而普通名词中则包括个体名词,如pen, worker…它表示单一的个体人或事物;集体名词,如:family,class, team,它表示的是由若干个个体组成的集合体;物质名词,如:water,paper…它表示的是一种物质,原材料;而后一种是抽象名词,如:work, time…它表示着一种在实际生活中看不见、摸不到,但却与实际生活紧密相关的某些动作、状态、品质的抽象概念。见下表。
 
长沙高中英语辅导班
 
                  名词一览表
 
种类
 
专有名词
 
 London, John, the Communist Party of China
 
普 通 名 词 类名词 nurse, boy, worker, pencil, dog, table
 
集体名词 class, family, army, police, team, people
 
物质名词 water, steel, glass, cotton, wood, sand
 
抽象名词 happiness, love, work, life, courage, honest
 
功用
 
主语 My family is now in New York.
 
表语 His father is a scientist.
 
宾语 We love our great motherland.
 
宾语补足语 He made London the base for his work.
 
定语 The girls are making paper flowesrs.
 
状语 The car cost him 1000 dollars.
 
同位语 Mr Brown, a famous scientist, will come here.
 
名词在使用中的难点在于名词的数,即可数名词与不可数名词的实际应用。不可数名词不能用数字计算,所以它通常只有单数形式。它包含有专有名词、物质名词、抽象名词等,如:English,air,water,cotton,work…可数名词是可以用数量加以计算的名词,所以它具有单数形式和复数形式两种。可数名词复数形式的构成规律是:
 
1.     一般情况加s,如:pen—pens, doctor—doctors,boy—boys,其读音规则是在清辅音后读[s],在元音和浊辅音后读[z]。
 
如:map—map , boy—boys.
 
2. 在以s,sh,ch,x结尾的名词后面加es,如:bus—buses,class—classes,其读音为[iz]。
 
3. 以ce,se,ze,(d)ge结尾的名词加s,其读音为[iz]。
 
4. 以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,要将y变为i再加es,读作[z],如:factory—factories,country—countries, family—families.但要注意的是以元音字母加y结尾的名词的复数形式只加s,如:boy—boys,day—days。
 
5. 以o结尾的名词的复数形式一般要加es,但如果o前面是元音字母或外来词,缩写词以o结尾的则只加s,如:tomato—tomatoes,hero—heroes;photo—photos,radio—radios,piano—pianos
 
6. 以f或fe结尾的名词的复数形式要将f或fe变为v再加es,如:knife—knives, leaf—leaves, 但有些例外的词如roof的复数形式是roofs。
 
7. 不规则名词的复数形式是要单个记忆的,它没有规律可循,如:man—men,woman—women, child—children, foot—feet,tooth—teeth, mouse—mice
 
8. 单复同形的名词有:fish, sheep,deer…
 
9. 单数形式但其意为复数的名词有:people,police等。名词还有格的变化,其主格可作主语,宾格可作宾语。还有所有格,用来表示人或物的所有,以及领属关系。表示有生命的名词的所有格其单数形式是加's其复数形式是s',如其结尾不是s的复数形式仍加's,如:a student's room, students' rooms, Children's Day.在表示时间、距离、世界、国家……名词的所有格要用's,如:a twenty minutes' walk.但无生命名词的所有格则必须用of结构,如:the capital of our country, the colour of the flowers
 
(二) 正误辨析
 
[误]Please give me a paper.
 
[正]Please give me a piece of paper.
 
[析]不要认为可以数的名词就是可数名词,这种原因是对英语中可数与不可数名词的概念与中文中的能数与不能数相混淆了,所以造成了这样的错误,因paper在英语中是属于物质名词一类,是不可数名词。而不可数名词要表达数量时,要用与之相关的量词来表达,如:two pieces of paper.
 
[误]Please give me two letter papers.
 
[正]Please give me two pieces of letter paper.
 
[析]paper作为纸讲是不可数名词,而作为报纸、考卷、文章讲时则是可数名词,如:Each student should write a paper on what he has learnt.
 
[误]My glasses is broken.
 
[正]My glasses are broken.
 
[误]I want to buy two shoes.
 
[正]I want to buy two pairs of shoes.
 
[析]英语中glasses—眼镜,shoes—鞋,trousers—裤子等由两部分组成的名词一般要用复数形式。如果要表示一副眼镜应用a pair of glasses而这时的谓语动词应与量词相一致。如:This pair of glasses is very good.
 
[误]May I borrow two radioes?
 
[正]May I borrow two radios?
 
[析]以o结尾的名词大都是用加es来表示其复数形式,但如果o前面是一个元音字母或外来语时则只加s就可以了。这样的词有zoo—zoos,piano—pianos.
 
[误]This is a Mary's dictionary.
 
[正]This is Mary's dictionary.
 
[析]如名词前有指示代词this, that, these those,及其他修饰词our,some, every, which, 或所有格时,则不要再加冠词。
 
[误]There are much people in the garden.
 
[正]There are many people in the garden.
 
[析]可数名词前应用many, few, a few, a lot of 来修饰,而people是可数名词,而且是复数名词,如:The people are planting trees here.
 
[误]I want a few water.
 
[正]I want a little water.
 
[析]不可数名词前可以用a little, little, a lot of, some来修饰,但不可用many,few来修饰。
 
[误]Thank you very much. Your family is very kind to me.
 
[正]Thank you very much. Your family are very kind to me.
 
[误]Tom's and Mary's family are waiting for us.
 
[正]Tom's and Mary's families are waiting for us.
 
[误]I'm sorry. I have to go. Tom's families are waiting for me.
 
[正]I'm sorry. I have to go. Tom's family are waiting for me.
 
[析]集合名词如果指某个集合的整体,则应视为单数,如指某个集合体中的个体则应视为复数。如:My family is a big family. When I came in, Tom's family were watching TV. 即汤姆一家人正在看电视。这样的集合名词有:family class, team等。
 
[误]Don't eat too much meats.
 
[正]Don't eat too much meat.
 
[误]Food in that restaurant is very good.
 
[正]The food in that restaurant is very good.
 
[析]物质名词是不可数名词,在使用中不可以加s,即它没有复数形式。也不可加不定冠词。但如果用于特指某一物质时可以加定冠词。如:I don't like drinking coffee, but the coffee in that cup is really good.
 
[误]Please give me two waters.
 
[正]Please give me two glasses of water.
 
[正]Please give me two coffees.
 
[析]物质名词如要加计量时,一定要加量词,如:two cups of tea,two glasses of water,a glass of milk,a loaf of bread,
 
 a piece of bread,a box of sugar,
 
a bowl of rice,a bottle of orange,
 
a bag of earth
 
例: I'll tell you a piece of good news.
 
但只有coffee可以用coffees来取代many cups of coffee.
 
[误]Can you give me the newspaper of today?
 
[正]Can you give me today's newspaper?
 
[析]加's构成所有格的名词一般应指有生命的人或物。如:Mary's hair,但在英文的习惯用法中对时间、距离等名词的所有格多用's来构成而不用of结构。如:a five minutes' walk.
 
[误]Please make a room for the lady in the school bus.
 
[正]Please make room for the lady in the school bus.
 
[析]英语中更多的名词是含有多种用法和多种含意的,

关键字:长沙英语培训
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